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Ultra-processed foods in human health: a critical appraisal./Am J Clin Nutr
Challenge many of the basic arguments of using the NOVA food classification system to examine the link between food and health.
With regard to the use of the NOVA food classification in the development of food-based dietary guidelines, we show that the very broad definition of UPFDs makes this impossible. Finally, the available evidence does not support the view that the globalization of food is the driver of increased intakes of UPFDs in low- to middle-income countries but rather that this is driven by small indigenous compa- nies. On balance, therefore, there seems to be little advantage from the use of the NOVA classification compared with the current epide- miologic approach, which relies on the linkage of nutrient intakes to chronic disease with subsequent identification of foods that merit consideration in public health nutrition strategies.
Gibney MJ, Forde CG, Mullally D, Gibney ER