Data

Year of publication

2019

Type

Quantitative

Design

Longitudinal

Classification

NOVA

Country studied

France

Data

Secondary

Data Collected

Two 24 hours recalls and + (mean= 5,7)

Study setting

Online

Age group of participant

Adults/18,0-72,8

Participant sex

Mixed

Target population

General

Sample size

n=105 159 (participants)

Ultra-processed food intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: prospective cohort study (NutriNet-Santé)/BMJ

Goal

Assess prospective associations between consumption of ultra-processed foods and risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Results

During a median follow-up of 5.2 years, intake of ultra-processed food was associated with a higher risk of overall cardiovascular disease (1409 cases; hazard ratio for an absolute increment of 10 in the percentage of ultra-processed foods in the diet 1.12 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.20); P<0.001, 518208 person years, incidence rates in high
consumers of ultra-processed foods (fourth quarter) 277 per 100000 person years, and in low consumers (first quarter) 242 per 100000 person years), coronary heart disease risk (665 cases; hazard ratio 1.13 (1.02 to 1.24); P=0.02, 520319 person years, incidence
rates 124 and 109 per 100000 person years, in the high and low consumers, respectively), and cerebrovascular disease risk (829 cases; hazard ratio 1.11 (1.01 to 1.21); P=0.02, 520023 person years, incidence rates 163 and 144 per 100000 person years, in high and low consumers, respectively). These results remained statistically significant after adjustment for several markers of the nutritional quality of the diet (saturated fatty acids, sodium and sugar intakes, dietary fibre, or a healthy dietary pattern derived by principal component analysis) and after a large range of sensitivity analyses. Conclusion : In this large observational prospective study, higher consumption of ultra-processed foods was associated with higher risks of cardiovascular, coronary heart, and cerebrovascular diseases. These results need to be confirmed in other populations and settings, and causality remains to be established. Various factors in processing, such as nutritional composition of the final product, additives, contact materials, and neoformed contaminants might play a role in these associations, and further studies are needed to understand better the relative contributions. Meanwhile, public health authorities in several countries have recently started to promote unprocessed or minimally processed foods and to recommend limiting the consumption of ultraprocessed foods.

Authors

Srour B, Fezeu LK, Kesse-Guyot E, et al.

Journal

DOI