Year of publication
Three food frequency
Age group of participant
Ultra-processed food intake and associations with demographic factors in young New Zealand children
Describe UPF intake and associations with demographic factors in young children from 12 to 60 months of age.
UPF contributed mean (95% confidence interval) 45% (44%, 47%), 42% (41%, 44%), and 51% (50%, 52%) of energy intake to the diets of children at 12, 24, and 60 months of age, respectively. Energy intake from UPF was moderately correlated between 24 and 60 months (r _ 0.36). No demographic factors were associated with mean %kcal UPF across time points, except for maternal obesity predicting higher UPF intake at 12 months. Bread, yoghurt, crackers, whole-wheat breakfast cereal, sausages, and muesli bars were among the 10 foods making the greatest contribution to mean %kcal UPF intakes at all time points.
Fangupo LJ, Haszard JJ, Taylor BJ, Gray AR, Lawrence JA, Taylor RW.
Journal of the Academy of Nutrtrition and Dietetics