Year of publication
One Food frequency, one to five 24 hours recalls
Age group of participant
Adults, elders/Mean=70 ± 10
Ultra-processed food consumption patterns among older adults in the Netherlands and the role of the food environment/Eur J Nutr
Describe the patterns of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) consumption in the Netherlands; to test if exposure to the food environment is associated with UPFs consumption; and if this association differed across educational levels and neighbourhood urbanisation.
The study population was aged 70(± 10 SD) years and 80.5% was female. Average UPFs consumption was 17.8% of total food intake in grams and 37% of total energy intake. Those who consumed greater amounts of UPFs had a poorer overall diet quality. Adjusted linear regression models showed that closer proximity and larger availability to any type of food retailer was associated with lower UPFs consumption (both in grams and kilocalories). Somewhat stronger significant associations were found for proximity to restaurants (β = − 1.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = − 2.6; − 0.6), and supermarkets (β = − 2.2%, 95%CI = − 3.3; − 1.1); i.e., Individuals living within 500 m from the closest supermarket, as compared to 1500 m, had 2.6% less calories from UPFs. No differences were found on analyses stratified for urbanisation and education.
Pinho MGM, Lakerveld J, Harbers MC, et al.