Year of publication
United Kingdom, Portugal, Ireland, Germany and France
One 24 hours recall
Household and laboratory
Age group of participant
Ultra-processed food consumption and exposure to phthalates and bisphenols in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013-2014
Assess associations of ultra-processed food consumption with exposure to phthalates and bi-sphenols,including newer replacements.
In adjusted models, higher energy from ultra-processed food was associated with higher urinary con-centrations of MCPP, MCNP, and MCOP but not MBzP, ∑DEHP, or bisphenols. Each 10% higher energy fromultra-processed food was associated with 8.0% (95% CI: 5.6%, 10.3%) higher urinary MCOP concentrations, with a stronger association among children than adolescents or adults .Ultra-processed sandwiches/hamburgers, Frenchfries/other potato products, and ice cream/pops were associated with higher concentrations of multiple chemicals. Higher energy from minimally processed food was associated with lower concentrations of MCPP,MCNP,MCOP,and bisphenols A and F.
Buckley JP, Kim H, Wong E, Rebholz CM.