Year of publication
Age group of participant
The relationship between joining a US free trade agreement and processed food sales, 2002–2016: a comparative interrupted time-series analysis
Examine changes in sales of highly processed foods, including infant formulas, in countries joining free trade agreements (FTAs) with the US.
After countries join a US FTA, sales are estimated to increase by: 0·89 (95 % CI 0·16, 1·6; P = 0·016) kg per capita per annum for ultra-processed products, 0·81 (95 % CI 0·47, 1·1; P < 0·001) kg per capita per annum for processed culinary ingredients and 0·17 (95 % CI 0·052, 0·29; P = 0·005) kg per capita under age 5 per annum for baby food. No significant change is estimated for minimally processed foods. In statistical models, large unexplained variations in country-specific trends suggest additional unmeasured country-level factors also impact sales trends following entry into US FTAs.
Cowling K, Stuart EA, Neff RA, Vernick J, Magraw D, Pollack Porter K.
Public Health Nutrition