Year of publication
Two 24 hours recalls
Age group of participant
Consumption of ultra-processed foods and non-communicable disease-related nutrient profile in Portuguese adults and elderly (2015–2016): The UPPER project
Investigate the dietary share of ultra-processed foods and its association with the non-communicable disease (NCD)-related nutrient profile of adult and elderly populations in Portugal.
In both adult and elderly groups, as the consumption of ultra-processed foods increased, the dietary content of total energy, dietary energy density, content of carbohydrates, free sugars, total fats and saturated fats increased, while the dietary content of protein, fiber, Na, and K decreased.The prevalence of those exceeding the upper limits recommended for free sugars and saturated fats increased by 544 and 153 % in adults and 619 and 60 % in elderly, when comparing the lowest with the highest quintile of ultra-processed food consumption.
Costa de Miranda R, Rauber F, de Moraes MM, Afonso C, Santos C, Rodrigues S, Bertazzi Lavy R.
British Journal of Nutrition