Data

Year of publication

2020

Type

Quantitative

Design

Cross-sectional

Classification

NOVA

Country studied

United Kingdom, Portugal, Ireland, Germany and France

Data

Secondary

Data Collected

One food frequency

Study setting

Research site

Age group of participant

Adults/ 21-59

Participant sex

Mixed

Target population

General

Sample size

n=755 (participants)

Characterising percentage energy from ultra-processed foods by participant demographics, diet quality and diet cost: findings from the Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) III./British Journal of Nutrition

Goal

Characterise percentage energy from UP foods by participant socio-economic status (SES), diet quality, self-reported food expenditure and energy-adjusted diet cost.

Results

Higher percentage energy from UP foods was associated with higher energy density, lower HEI-2015 and NRF9.3 scores. The bottom decile of diet cost ($216·4/month) was associated with 67·5 % energy from UP foods; the top decile ($369·9/month) was associated with only 48·7 % energy from UP foods. Percentage energy from UP foods was inversely linked to lower food expenditures and diet cost. In multivariate analysis, percentage energy from UP foods was predicted by lower food expenditures, diet cost and edu- cation, adjusting for covariates. Percentage energy from UP foods was linked to lower food spending and lower SES. Efforts to reduce UP foods consumption, an increasingly common policy measure, need to take affordability, food expenditures and diet costs into account.

Authors

Gupta S, Rose CM, Buszkiewicz J, et al.

Journal

DOI