Year of publication
United Kingdom, Portugal, Ireland, Germany and France
One food frequency
Age group of participant
Characterising percentage energy from ultra-processed foods by participant demographics, diet quality and diet cost: findings from the Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) III
Characterise percentage energy from UP foods by participant socio-economic status (SES), diet quality, self-reported food expenditure and energy-adjusted diet cost.
Higher amounts of UPF was associated with higher energy density, lower HEI-2015 scores and lower NRF scores. Those in the bottom decile of diet cost consumed 67.5% energy from UPF while those in the top decile consumed 48.7% energy from UPF. Highter UPF consumption was linked to lower food spending and socio-economic status.
Gupta S, Rose CM, Buszkiewicz J, Ko LK, Mou J, Cook A, Aggarwal A, Drewnowski A.
British Journal of Nutrition