Year of publication
United Kingdom, Portugal, Ireland, Germany and France
One food frequency
Age group of participant
Association of ultra-processed food consumption with cardiovascular mortality in the US population: long-term results from a large prospective multicenter study
Examine the association of ultra-processed food consumption with cardiovascular mortality in a US population.
After an average follow-up of 13.5 years (1236049.2 person-years), 5490 cardiovascular deaths were documented, including 3985 heart disease deaths and 1126 cerebrovascular deaths. In the fully adjusted model, participants in the highest vs. the lowest quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption had higher risks of death from cardiovascular disease (HRquintile 5 vs. 1, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.36–1.64) and heart disease (HRquintile 5 vs. 1, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.50–1.87) but not cerebrovascular disease (HRquintile 5 vs. 1, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.76–1.17). A nonlinear dose–response pattern was observed for overall cardiovascular and heart disease mortality (all Pnonlinearity<0.05), with a threshold effect observed at ultra-processed food consumption of 2.4 servings/day and 2.3 servings/day, respectively; below the thresholds, no significant associations were observed for these two outcomes. Subgroup analyses showed that the increased risks of mortality from ultra-processed foods were significantly higher in women than in men (all Pinteraction<0.05).
Zhong G, Gu H, Peng Y, Wang K, Wu Y, et al.