Year of publication
United Kingdom, Portugal, Ireland, Germany and France
One to two 24 hours recalls
Age group of participant
Association between Dietary Share of Ultra-Processed Foods and Urinary Concentrations of Phytoestrogens in the US
Examine the relationship between dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods and urinary phytoestrogen concentrations in the US.
Adjusted enterodiol geometric means decreased monotonically from 60.6 in the lowest quintile to 35.1 µg/g creatinine in the highest, while adjusted enterolactone geometric means dropped from 281.1 to 200.1 across the same quintiles, respectively. No significant linear trend was observed in the association between these quintiles and isoflavone concentrations. This finding reinforces the existing evidence regarding the negative impact of ultra-processed food consumption on the overall quality of the diet and expands it to include non-nutrients such as lignans.
Martínez Steele E, Monteiro CA.