Year of publication
United Kingdom, Portugal, Ireland, Germany and France
One 24 hours recall
Age group of participant
Association between dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods and urinary concentrations of phthalates and bisphenol in a nationally representative sample of the US population aged 6 years and older
Examine the association between dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods and urinary biomarker concentrations of parent compounds or their metabolites including Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (_DEHP), Di-isononyl phthalate (_DiNP), Monocarboxynonyl phthalate (mCNP), Mono (3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (mCPP), Monobenzyl phthalate (mBzP), Bisphenol A (BPA), Bisphenol F (BPF) and Bisphenol S (BPS), in the US.
Adjusted geometric means of _DiNP, mCNP, mCPP, mBzP and BPF increased monotonically from the lowest to the highest quintile of ultra-processed food consumption. As both phthalates/bisphenol and ultra-processed foods have been previously associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, general/abdominal obesity and hypertension, our results suggest the possibility of contact materials in ultra-processed foods as one link between ultra-processed food and these health outcomes. Future studies could confirm findings and further explore these mechanisms of action.
Steele EM, Khandpur N, Louzada MLC, Monteiro CA.